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If I understood correctly てしまう means that something happened by mistake/negatively, たらindicates condition like an if so てしまったら would mean if some negative thing happens?

Here is the sentence where i saw it:

その他、日本のプロ野球では、ピッチャーがバッターにデッドボールを与えてしまったら、帽子を取ってバッターに謝るが、これも心を大切にする礼の一つだと言えるのではないだろうか。

与える means to provide, so my translation would be something like:

when the pitcher unfortunately gives a "Hit by pitch" to the batter, I think that it would be fair for the pitcher to apologize?

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Yes, this usage of Vて+しまう conveys the regret and/or lack of intention surrounding the circumstance - specifically, that the pitcher threw the ball in a way that it hit the batter, rather than in a way that allowed the batter to strike the ball. So, I think your understanding is correct.

However, how you translate it is a question of your purpose (e.g. to entertain, to inform, to persuade), and your audience (e.g. assumptions about their skills and knowledge, how formal you need to be with them, etc.), and personally "hit by pitch" only adds to my confusion as someone who is only familiar with baseball in passing. I'd therefore consider a different translation for a novice audience like me (noting that how you make it sound natural in English will depend also on what else the text talks about), perhaps something like:

"Moreover, in Japanese professional baseball, when a pitcher's throw unintentionally hits the batter, he/she takes off his/her hat and apologises. Could we not say that this too is another form of [the] heartfelt courtesy [shown in various settings within Japanese society]?"

with bits in brackets are inferred from what I'm guessing the rest of the text talks about.

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