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Currently, I am trying to find which grammar construction is appropriate for expressing a phrase similar to "For each apple you give me, I will give you an orange." in Japanese.

The current translation I have came up with is as follow:
"くれるリンゴごとに、オレンジをあげます。"
I feel that this translation is likely not natural sounding or ごとに is not the grammar construction I should be using here. Any help is appreciated!

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“For each apple, I will give you an orange” could be translated as:

リンゴ1つにつきミカンを1つあげます。

The sentence becomes a bit awkward when “apple” is modified with “you give me”.

もらう (or もらった) リンゴ1つにつきミカンを1つあげます。[a bit awkward]

I might rephrase it to something like this.

もらう (or もらった) リンゴの数だけミカンをあげます。
I will give you as many oranges as apples I am (or have been) given.

The following sentence with ごと is grammatical.

リンゴを1つもらうごとにミカンを1つあげます。

However, it sounds as if you are given one apple at a time on multiple occasions and you will reward the giver with one orange on every such occasion.

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