pedophile is arguably the wrong interpretation. pedophile = someone who is sexually attracted to children. ロリコン is short for "Lolita complex" and it just means attraction to young women
How young depends on the person. That image you posted I would not personally consider "lolicon". You can find better representative images by searching
The positive way to frame it is many people find kids and teens to be adorable, so they like to look at and read about characters that have those same adorable characteristics and some women like to be those characters. You can look at a young person and think "they're sooooo cute!!!" without it straying into a bad place. Japanese culture has a strong attraction to cute things (think Hello Kitty) and plenty of girls like to be considered cute and one way to do that is to appear young and child like.
Also, maybe a controversial example, but Suicide Squad's Harley Quinn with her pony tails is arguably an appeal to a similar idea. Pony tails are usually something associated with kids and young teens, not adults.
Of course, given the topic, it does often stray into questionable areas. The name ロリ is short for lolita which comes from a book by that name about an older man who has a relationship with a teenager. There are also cultural differences throughout the world on what age it's okay to be sexually active and what age differences are acceptable.
The point I'm trying to make is "pedophile" has a much more negative meaning than "lolicon". Search for "pedophile" and you'll pretty much only read about criminals. Search for "ロリコン" on Japanese google and you'll find dressing tips, makeup tips, women showing off their "lolicon" look, manga that you can by at every convenience store in Japan. You'll also probably find lots of things you'd prefer not to have seen so be warned.