I have starting reading some very simple Japanese news articles and came across this sentence,


While I'm relatively sure what the sentence means I'm unsure of the use of the で particle in,


I'm sure it's used to mark means of an action but I'm unsure of what action it is marking and how it relates to the rest of the sentence.

2 Answers 2


では in this sentence is a collocation of the ren'youkei of だ (which is で) + は, which expresses that something is the premise of a declaration/judgment [1].

So Xでは here means "according to X" or "based on X", i.e.

According to the prediction given on the 4th, the earliest they will bloom this year is in the cities of Fukuoka and Kochi, on the 13th of this month.

Another example:

According to the weather forecast, it will be sunny tomorrow.

You can also substitute だと for では in either of these sentences; the meaning is the same.

According to the weather forecast, it will be sunny tomorrow.

[1] デジタル大辞泉 (dictionary.goo.ne.jp)


  • Thank you, this really makes a lot of sense, where should I go to learn more about ren'youkei form?
    – jjrum
    Commented Mar 10, 2021 at 8:58
  • @jjrum This is a pretty good guide I found: jref.com/articles/renyoukei.107
    – Setris
    Commented Mar 10, 2021 at 9:51

I believe the「で」used in this sentence marks the location. More precisely, it marks the source of information. So, you can interpret「4日に出した予想は、...」as

In the weather forecast announced on March 4, ...

The rest of the sentence can be translated as

In the weather forecast announced on March 4, the earliest time for sakura to bloom this month is on March 13 in Fukuoka and Koichi.

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