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The full phrase is:

ですが私は死にたくありません (but I don't want to die)

この世に生まれてきてしまったからです (because I was born into this world)

I think I understand the vocabulary break down. I just don't understand how this all grammatically connects to the English translated sentence.

この世に - to this world

生まれて - born, but with progressive te? Or is the te just connecting?

きて - I came, progressive te? Connecting te?

しまった - I did, but I didn't mean to do it? Could this have been しました?

からです - because.

I guess I can roughly translate it in reverse as "because I did come born to this world". But I feel I'm missing some nuances in the grammar. Can anyone explain to me what are the tes and the shimata doing?

Btw, this is a line from Attack on Titan. But I don't believe it's a spoiler.

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You've broken down everything perfectly. 生まれてきて is the combination of 生まれる+てくる in the Te-form. This is a grammar point that is explained in more depth here. Here, てくる essentially adds the nuance that someone is "born into (this world)" rather than just "born in (this world)".

You are correct that this ~てしまう means something accidental and often undesirable. Being born into this world is not something intentional, and I assume being born in a world full of huge human eating babies is not something desirable as well. adding ~てしまう gives that nuance here. So 生まれてくる+てしまう gives you 生まれてきてしまう→born into (this world) unintentionally.

I think you have a good grasp on the rest of the sentence, so let's put them together.

この世に
In this world

この世に生まれてきてしまう
Born into this world (unintentionally)

この世に生まれてきてしまったからです
Because I was born into this world (unintentionally and perhaps undesirably).

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