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I'm currently reading a short paragraph here that has the following sentences:

男{おとこ}はそう言{い}うと、もう一枚{いちまい}マントを出{だ}して、急{いそ}いで着{き}ました。北風{きたかぜ}は二{に}枚{まい}のマントを脱{ぬ}がせるために、もっと強{つよ}く風{かぜ}を吹{ふ}きました。

In particular, the first sentence uses the counter directly without の as 一枚{いちまい}マント, while the second uses it with a の as 二{に}枚{まい}のマント.

I checked this answer for particles after counters, but that's for different particles. Looking at this answer that mentions の, it implies it should be either マント一枚{いちまい} or 一枚{いちまい}のマント. And yet, this Tae Kim page on counters has this as an example:

紙{かみ}、二{に}枚{まい}ずつをホッチキスで留{とど}める。

which is without の, but I imagine that's an exception, as ずつ is a suffix and not a noun, and would perhaps be shuffled around into something like this:

二{に}枚{まい}の紙{かみ}ずつをホッチキスで留{とど}める。

However, I'm not too sure then if the original article's lack of の is a typo or if there's a slightly different meaning like the suffix.

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It's because the operative term would be "もう一枚" (one more/another), 一枚 comes with もうand not マント. You can rephrase it into マントをもう一枚出だして and it would mean the same.

Note that you could also say "もう一枚のマント", but that would mean "the other cape".

See def 5.

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