For example, one definition for かける is "❶物をほかの物に取り付ける" (first thing「三省堂 スーパー大辞林」shows in the Yomichan browser plugin) . This definition is fine, but I might struggle to see the connection with metaphorical uses such as "迷惑をかける" or "魔法をかける". The dictionary just gives further definitions for this kind of usage: ❸他にある作用を与える。他に影響を及ぼす。The definitions go up to twenty or so, so now I'm stuck with ~20 seemingly unrelated concepts when a single concept would do if the metaphorical extensions are explained properly (e.g. found in https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1MbqmZPySPQ).
There are a handful of very common verbs, such as 差す、抜く、当たる、込む where I'm pretty sure a native would see 1-2 concepts, while it usually seems like 2-20 different concepts to me (depending on the verb). Unfortunately I only know dictionaries that list definitions, not the common idea behind the word.
Does someone have a resource explaining the central idea behind these kinds of verbs and their further metaphors? Ideally I'm looking for similar depth to the video linked above. A good dictionary would also do the job. I'm also happy if it's Japanese-Japanese.
(related: this question)
To be clear, I'm not expecting to magically be able to guess that we say 電話をかける ("hang an electronic conversation"). I'm fully aware that set phrases like these are arbitrary. Every language has those. But I expect to be able to tell what an expression means when I see it in the wild. For instance, I can understand 取り受ける without looking up the word because both 取る and 受ける are very clear to my English brain and context takes care of the rest. I don't have the same luxury with 差す and the combinations it appears in, because I don't understand the general concept behind the verb. So any time 差す appears in expressions (e.g. 傘を差す) I have to look over ~20 definitions to be able to guess its meaning. Repeat this like 30 times, because it's hard for me to remember these seemingly arbitrary and unconnected uses.