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I was initially taught that いえ was the informal version of いいえ. Recently, I have read on several websites that いえ should only be used to refer to house/home 家. Is this true and if so, what is the negative equivalent of え?

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    いえ is relatively more informal than いいえ, but いえ is used mostly in formal and polite speech. It's probably much more common than いいえ, too.
    – naruto
    Jan 26, 2021 at 0:52

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いえ is definitely used informally for いいえ, though it's not super casual. More casual options include いや, ううん, or 違う. That being said, you don't necessarily need a word that means 'no'; you can reply to 「フランスに行ったことある?」with just 「ないよ」

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    I would have thought 違う is less casual (though of course it's more casual than 違います); it's the sort of thing you say because a direct "no" isn't appropriate for the situation... ? Jan 25, 2021 at 11:06
  • @KarlKnechtel Sorry for the late reply, but 違う is actually an extremely direct way of saying 'no
    – Angelos
    Mar 19, 2021 at 9:03

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