While watching Konosuba, when Megumin will do her self-introduction (she speaks in an archaic way) she says:


The words/expressions that I didn't understand are "生業【なりわい】とし" and "究極【きゅうきょく】", I researched a lot, but I couldn't understand their meaning in the sentence.

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    Have you tried dictionaries? Show us what you've found so far. Regarding 生業とし, are you having trouble with the meaning of 生業, or the ~とし part?
    – chocolate
    Jan 19, 2021 at 2:38
  • @Chocolate I searched in dictionaries, but even with their explanation I did not understand what "究極" means nor its function in the sentence. And I'm in trouble with the ~とし part
    – Yasushiki
    Jan 19, 2021 at 2:49
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    Yasushiki, people are confused because every dictionary has the meaning of "ultimate" and it perfectly matches this context. There is nothing tricky with this 究極. Please explain WHY you don't understand this. If you can't, please provide your translation attempt of the entire sentence. Sometimes the source of your confusion comes from a different part of the sentence.
    – naruto
    Jan 19, 2021 at 2:59
  • @naruto I am unable to understand how 究極 relates to the rest of the sentence, I am understanding something like "So, prepare to look with me in the ultimate abyss", I cannot understand what an "ultimate abyss" is. Maybe my translation attempt makes sense in English, but in my language I can't understand what it is
    – Yasushiki
    Jan 19, 2021 at 3:11

2 Answers 2



The し is the 連用形(continuative form) of the verb する. It can connect clauses, like the て-form. You can rewrite it as:

アークウィザードを生業とし、~~ (← sounds more casual and modern)

AをBとする literally means "make A as B".

lit. "I make アークウィザード my job, and..."

For 「~を仕事とする」, 「~を~とする」, see:

For more on the 「~を~とする」「~を~にする」 structure, see also:

究極の深淵 means "ultimate abyss" (but does it not make sense in English?). 究極の is a na-adjective meaning "ultimate".

  • I understood the とし part, thanks. But about "ultimate", can you explain what an "ultimate thing" is? I really can't understand what it is
    – Yasushiki
    Jan 19, 2021 at 3:38
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    @Yasushiki This "ultimate abyss" means something like "perfect/deepest/final abyss". Don't you say something like "ultimate role-playing game", "ultimate happiness", "ultimate answer of the question" or such?
    – naruto
    Jan 19, 2021 at 3:57
  • @Yasushiki, This seems like a quote from Friedrich Nietzsche's 「怪物と闘う者は、その過程で自らが怪物と化さぬよう心せよ。おまえが長く深淵を覗くならば、深淵もまた等しくおまえを見返すのだ。 」"Wer mit Ungeheuern kämpft, mag zusehn, dass er nicht dabei zum Ungeheuer wird. Und wenn du lange in einen Abgrund blickst, blickt der Abgrund auch in dich hinein." "He who fights with monsters should look to it that he himself does not become a monster. And if you gaze long into an abyss, the abyss also gazes into you." ja.wikiquote.org/wiki/…
    – chocolate
    Jan 19, 2021 at 4:02
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    @Yasushiki Yes exactly. In this context, it's the most dangerous abyss which only the strongest magician can look into. Weak ones typically go insane when they see such an abyss.
    – naruto
    Jan 19, 2021 at 4:33
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    @Yasushiki This is shaping up to be a question about English rather than Japanese. Yes, the word "ultimate" has several meanings. I'd say the most commonly invoked in the context of fantasy is definition 1c in this M-W entry: "the best or most extreme of its kind : UTMOST".
    – Eddie Kal
    Jan 19, 2021 at 4:44

「生業【なりわい】」and「究極【きゅうきょく】」can be found in dictionaries.

WWWJDIC gives: 「生業【なりわい】」

(1) occupation; calling; (n) (2) livelihood


ultimate; final; last; eventual

「とし」is the 連用形{れんようけい} of 「とする」, (per WWWJDIC「とする」: (3) to take as; to treat as; to regard as). For details on 連用形{れんようけい}, please see this excellent answer.


As an arch wizard

「究極【きゅうきょく】」just means "ultimate" and is quite commonly seen in fantasy works. 「究極の深淵」: ultimate abyss.

  • I'm going to see that other answer you mentioned (I didn't even know that 連用形 exists), and about 究極, isn't there a "hidden meaning"? Is it just a word for effect?
    – Yasushiki
    Jan 19, 2021 at 2:55
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    meaning "as (i.e. in the role of)" -- それは「アークウィザードとして」「教師として」の「として」で、「アークウィザードを生業として」「教師を職業として」の「として」じゃないです。
    – chocolate
    Jan 19, 2021 at 3:41
  • @Chocolate そうでしたか。指摘してくださりありがとうございます!今直してみます。
    – Eddie Kal
    Jan 19, 2021 at 4:32

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