This is a sentence from Tobira's book ch11 読み物.


The part that confuses me is 独自の芸術文化が発達した清潔で文化レベルの高い都市. So far I know that you can connect a sentence using the て form, using a relative clause with a unconjugated verb, or with the stem -masu form of a verb. But here we have 独自の芸術文化が発達した清潔で, so is it modifying 清潔 which in turns links to 都市 or 独自の芸術文化が発達した affects 清潔で文化レベルの高い都市 as a whole?

If I understand it correctly it translates to more or less: "Edo was a clean and highly cultured city that developed an unique artistic culture" but I don't understand what grammar rule is being used here 発達した清潔で

In short, could someone help we divide this sentence by it's different "adjectives" and the grammar rules used to join each of them?

1 Answer 1


I would parse it this way:


「世界で一番人口の多い」, 「独自の芸術文化が発達した」 and 「清潔で文化レベルの高い」 are relative clauses that modify the noun 都市.

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    So 清潔で文化レベルの高い is a single relative clause (the "clean and with a high level of culture" part)? and what separates it from the previous one is that that one finishes with the short past form 発達した? Could it be said then that a way to know how to "divide" the relative clauses is from how they finish, whether is a short form or a い/な adjective? Jan 11, 2021 at 2:59

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