I'm reading the "To the Little Ones" story(『小さき者へ』) and, I found this mark ―― between sentences, does it have a specific meaning, or as I thought, it's just for more space?
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First off, the quote you gave is not the full sentence. The full sentence runs like this:
お前たちが大きくなって、一人前の人間に育ち上った時、―― その時までお前たちのパパは生きているかいないか、それは分らない事だが ―― 父の書き残したものを繰拡（くりひろ）げて見る機会があるだろうと思う。
Note that there are two long dashes in this sentence.
As in English, Japanese has two kinds of dashes, both having come into the Japanese language through Latin alphabet based texts and become part of the modern Japanese text, as indicated by its loanword-marked katakana name. The en dash (enダッシュ) is pretty much used the same way as in English and a lot of other languages: to show ranges of values, and to connect related names or concepts, and it is used mostly in contexts where there is a lot of romaji or numerals. As for the em dash (emダッシュ)
Here is another more detailed summary:
- Used with a subtitle
- Marks a change of topic
- Shows that there are things unsaid
- Used to bracket words when they are too long to put in square brackets
- Used to show the passage of time or the traverse of space
- In a similar way to 「〜から〜まで」, shows ranges
We can now see that in your specific case, the em dashes function to bracket words when they are too long to put in square brackets. The narrator is writing to his children in epistolary form. He interrupts himself and changes the topic and the mood by saying, "I don't know if I will be around when you grow up." He prefaces this interjection with an em dash and ends it with another one. In other words this is a parenthetical. This is actually quite common in literature.