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Given a simple pattern like this, I'm wondering what the topic of the third sentence is.

クラウスさんは学生です。 私も学生です。 日本語を勉強します。

After using も in the second sentence, is the topic of the third sentence still クラウスさん, 私, or both?

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クラウスさんは学生です。 私も学生です。 日本語を勉強します。

doesn't sound very natural, partly because 日本語を勉強します usually means you are going to learn Japanese from now or in the near future, rather than that you've already started learning or you're currently learning Japanese. It's not very natural also because it's not clear who's the subject of the 3rd sentence. If I heard:

クラウスさんは学生です。 私も学生です。 日本語を勉強しています。

I would probably interpret it as "Klaus-san is a student. I am a student, too. I am learning Japanese." though it might depend on the context.

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Interesting question.

I think the topic is still クラウスさんは

If they were both the topic of the second sentence you would have used と一緒に

If the topic were you, I think you would have used 日本語勉強します (I think it is implicit that クラウスさんは learns japanese since he/she is a 学生)

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    「日本語勉強します」って言うためには、その前に何か別のものを勉強しているって言ってないとダメですよ。 日本語勉強します needs a sentence saying you're learning some other thing before it.
    – Chocolate
    Dec 19 '20 at 15:34

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