Here is another passage I read from Shin Kanzen Master Dokkai N1. (Well, it's actually an excerpt from Asahi Shinbun.)

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For this passage, I have several questions:

  1. Usage of という

Here I encircled two instances of という. At first, I thought that these two というs are used differently, but I think they are the same in the sense that they both serve to quote the expression that precedes it, except that the first one is a direct quote, while the other one is an indirect quote. Can anyone confirm this?

  1. That にである (end of first paragraph)

I was surprised when I saw に next to である. Is this a typographical error? Is this a truncated sentence? I have not seen a sentence like this before.

  1. Another case of だ抜き? (last paragraph, second sentence)

Here I found out that だ抜き happens often. So far, I have seen the structure だと〜 becoming と〜. In the last paragraph however, there was no と〜 at the end. Can this be considered as another example of だ抜き?

  1. The first と言う should be treated more literally. Someone probably said that quote. The second という should be treated as 「らしい」 or 「そうだ」. It demonstrates hearsay. Although this doesn't always hold true, whether 言う is in kanji or not often clues you in for whether you should be taking "say" literally or not.

  2. にである is not a grammar point. You should be reading the passage, not reading the sentence by itself. Context is important. The sentence before it says:

Kawai-san was surprised.

What 話 was she surprised at? Well, the next sentence fills you in:

She was surprised that they thought you could make friends if you worked hard for week.

You can just substitute this part of the sentence to the sentence before it:


  1. Yes, your assumption is right. I can't say I am 100% sure, so someone else can correct me if I'm wrong about this.
  • Thanks for your help Shurim-senpai. So the two というs are different after all. I wrote in the margin that they might be different, but thanks for confirming that. Your explanation in 2 is great. It's pretty common in conversation to end utterances in particles. (E.g., キレイです。彼女は。) but I didn't know that they can be used in written Japanese as well. As for 3, well, it's not really a big deal to me. More than knowing whether it's だ抜き or not, what's important is that these sentences exist and that I should not be very much bothered by them. – rebuuilt Dec 6 '20 at 2:51

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