1

浦島太郎は心のやさしい若者で、毎日海へ出かけて魚をつって年老いたおとうさんとお母さんを養っていました。

Urashima Taro was a young man with a kind heart; he went out to sea every day to go fishing to support his elderly father and mother.

This is from "Japanese Stories for Language Learners".

Now, what I don't quite get is where the "intent" of Taro-san's fishing is shown: he goes out to sea every day to go fishing to support his parents. The only thing I read here is that he has a kind heart, he is young, he goes fishing every day out to sea, and he supports his parents. But where's the link between the fishing and the supporting of his parents? Is this just a poor translation or am I missing something? I was also expecting 行く to be used here.

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Here's a usage overview for the て-form in Japanese.

Usage 5 is summarised as "Means and Method":

大根を買って、おでんを作ります。(I will buy a daikon and then I will make oden.)

大根を使っておでんを作ります。(I will make oden with daikon.)

バイトをして、新しいPCを買います。(I will work and then I will buy a new PC.)

バイトで得たお金で新しいPCを買います。(I will buy a new PC from my salary.)

With this usage, you're right to interpret the sentence as "He goes out fishing to support his parents."

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