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I just learned (embarrassingly recently) that people say トイレお借り出来ますか. I suppose that means that in this case it is used instead of 使う. Are there other cases of using 借りる in this sense? Say, if I wanted to use the coffee machine in my office, would it be more appropriate to say 借りる than 使う as in, コーヒー機械使ってもいいですか?

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借りる means that you tentatively monopolize it. (That's why you use it for the toilet.) So, when it comes to movable properties, 借りる basically means that you are taking it somewhere the other people can't access. You should use it while considering that point.

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