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活用のないままだと別物だと思われるのですが、例えば「want to keep doing something」と言いたい時、「していたい」とも「し続けたい」とも言うことができそうです。違いはあるでしょうか。それから先日、「英語で話しましょうか」と申し出してくださった相手に、そちらは英語でも構いませんが「こちらは日本語を使っていさせていただきたいです」という言い方をしてみたら、「使い続けさせていただきたい」に直していただきました。確かに書いている時にも多少違和感がありましたが、「ていさせる」という言い方はないということですか?だったらなぜでしょうか。

宜しくお願い致します。

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These are not quite the same thing, although I think it can be kind of tricky because していたい has no obvious direct parallel in English. It expresses a desire to be in a state, although if you express that desire while in said state the distinction obviously becomes very fuzzy.

違いはあるでしょうか。

Well, the very obvious one is that you can していたい a state you aren't currently in. Here is a question about 常に忙しくしていたいという人, or people who constantly want to be busy. We can reduce this to 忙しくしていたい, which is just want to be busy. You can say this if you aren't currently busy, whereas constructions with 続ける are not appropriate in that situation. Of course, 忙しくしたい also just comes out as want to be busy in English, but this isn't what you are asking about here - I'll just say that between したい and していたい the latter has more emphasis on state over time.

The last thing I would add, although I think we are venturing into fairly subjective territory, is that I think there are cases where 続ける implies more agency than ている. ずっとこうしていたい is the Japanese equivalent of English's I want to be like this forever which you might expect to hear in a romance movie, but I think ずっとこうし続けたい would end up sounding weird here because there's no explicit action that you want to continue.

「こちらは日本語を使っていさせていただきたいです」という言い方をしてみたら、「使い続けさせていただきたい」に直していただきました。確かに書いている時にも多少違和感がありましたが、「ていさせる」という言い方はないということですか?

I think you have answered your own question here, in the sense that ていさせる sounds pretty weird to me. I would not say this, although perhaps a native speaker can come up with a situation in which it might be appropriate.

だったらなぜでしょうか。

Unfortunately, as with most things in language, the answer is simply "because people don't say that".

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