Back again with another question about で in this sentence:


Which supposedly translates to "You just missed Ami as she went out."

From my understanding of で, it may serve three functions:

  1. To indicate the location where an action is happening
  2. To indicate means
  3. Used as a conjunction to connect clauses

However, I seem to be confused with this one, since it modifies 入れ違い which does not seem to fit the functions listed.

Or I guess it may be (1) since it sort of says where the action is happening (i.e. while they're passing by), but I'm not too confident.

Is my understanding of it correct?


1 Answer 1


Your hunch is pretty close. In this case it indicates situational context.

Ami was going out as we walked by each other.

  • 精一杯頑張る sounds unnatural, no? It's corrected to 精一杯頑張る by multiple native speakers on Lang-8, eg here, here. (As you know, 精一杯 can function adverbially.)
    – Chocolate
    Sep 28, 2020 at 2:42
  • @Chocolate I think you're right. Also Google returned ~100k search results for 精一杯で頑張る while 精一杯頑張る returned over 1.7M results. I'll fix my answer.
    – asa9ohan
    Sep 28, 2020 at 7:16

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