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I am trying to work out how to say 'Today is also my birthday', but I can think of three different situations and wondering what is the best way to say each of them in Japanese.

  • [Not only is it Christmas but] today is also my birthday.

  • [I heard it's your birthday, and] today is also my birthday.

  • [I have two birthdays, I had one last month but] today is also my birthday.

In no particular order, here are the sentences I have made but I don't know what goes with which, if they are the best for the sentences of even if they make sense.

  • 今日も私の誕生日です。
  • 今日は私も誕生日です。
  • 今日は私の誕生日でもあります。

Thanks for any help!

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Here is a pretty well known demonstration of syntactic ambiguity in Japanese.

The same kind of ambiguity can also occur in English, as you just demonstrated. So, the "best" way to say them depends on the context. If you have enough context and your goal is to be succinct and not sound too stiff, then perhaps an ambiguous sentence will suffice. However, if you want to be absolutely sure that the sentence on its own will convey exactly what you want it to convey, then it's best to just add the extra context, just like in English.

I think the examples you provided are already as specific as can be using just the syntax, and they all work, except there's still ambiguity:

A. 今日も私の誕生日です。
Last month was my birthday, and today is also my birthday.
Last month it was my birthday (not yours), and today is also my birthday (not yours).
Last month it was my birthday (not my anniversary), and today is also my birthday (not my anniversary).

B. 今日は私も誕生日です。
Today is your birthday, and also my birthday.

C. 今日は私の誕生日でもあります。
Today is my funeral, and also my birthday.
Today is his birthday, and also my birthday.
Today is our anniversary, and also my birthday.

For sentence A, the last two scenarios aren't practical, so there's essentially no ambiguity (however, if we were talking about something other than birthdays they could become viable). Sentence B only has one meaning. But sentence C can mean 3 different things depending on context.

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