What is the meaning of やらで in this tanka and where it comes from?


I found that the expression 出でやる could be an equivalent of 出てくる but I don't really understand the equivalence between 出でやる and 出てくる at all... I found that 出で comes from 出づ, and old version of the actual 出る (is this correct?). It can be translated as appear, but i don't really understand the function of やる there.

Also I think the で after やらで could act like "not" here, but i am not really sure about that.


The original source is this: volume 4 of Shimpen Kokka taikan, ed. Shimpen Kokka Taikan Henshû I'inkai (Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten, 1986), although I had a hard time finding this book. I also use this English translation, although it's all in rômaji: Just Living, poems & prose by the Japanese monk Tonna, by Steven D. Carter.

  • 2
    I should have mentioned this before, but when asking a question you're supposed to indicate what research you've already done to try to find the answer on your own, and say what you think the answer might be. Can you do some research and edit your question accordingly? This 古語 dictionary should help: kobun.weblio.jp. (Hint: the classical equivalent of 出る{でる} is 出づ{いづ}, a 下二段 verb.) Also, you're technically only supposed to ask one question per post, though breaking that rule is often tolerated (especially if someone asks closely related questions about one phrase or passage). – Nanigashi Aug 29 '20 at 17:20
  • I'm really sorry, i edited the question with my research already. I'm not really used to this page, but i'll try not to make that mistake again. – Paloma Aug 30 '20 at 22:18
  • No need to apologize – like I said, the mistake was really mine for not pointing out this rule to you before. And great job researching and editing your question! – Nanigashi Aug 30 '20 at 23:19

You're right about 出{い}で; it is the 連用形 of 出{い}づ, meaning "to emerge, to go out, to come out," etc. Here, the 連用形 is used because 出{い}づ is being combined with the auxiliary verb やる.

As a verb in its own right, やる has a range of meanings, the most basic and common of which is "to send [something or someone somewhere]." By extension, やる can also be used as an auxiliary verb to convey that an action is taking place over a long distance, as in 見{み}遣{や}る, which can mean "to look at [something far away]."

In this poem, though, やる is being used as an auxiliary verb in a different way, a way that conveys the idea of completion. That is, [verb] + やる means "to finish [verb]ing," "to [verb] completely," "to [verb] all the way," etc. However, this auxiliary usage of やる very commonly occurs in a negative form, so it's often used to say "doesn't finish [verb]ing," "didn't [verb] completely," "hasn't [verb]ed all the way," etc. The relevant entry for this usage in Weblio's 古語辞典 is

や・る 【遣る】

[二]補助動詞ラ行四段活用 活用{ら/り/る/る/れ/れ} 〔動詞の連用形に付いて〕 ② 〔多く下に打消の語を伴って〕すっかり…する。最後まで…する。…しきる。▽その>動作が最後まで行われたという意味を表す。

And sure enough, that negative usage is what's happening here, as we have the 未{み}然{ぜん}形{けい} of やる followed by what you have correctly identified as the negative particle で. Here's the Weblio entry for で:

で 接続助詞 《接続》活用語の未然形に付く。〔打消の接続〕…ないで。…ずに。

So putting this all together, 出{い}でやらで tells us that the moon (which seems to be rising from behind a mountain to the east) hasn't yet fully emerged from the trees.

  • I see... classical japanese is still really difficult for me, but really interesting. Thanks a lot for your answer! – Paloma Aug 31 '20 at 15:46
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    You're welcome, and thanks for bringing this poem to my attention; the imagery is really interesting. If you know the source, would you mind editing your question to include it? I've found another, very similar poem that seems quite closely related, and I suspect this one is a deliberate variation on it. I'd like to look into that a little further just for my own interest. – Nanigashi Aug 31 '20 at 16:21
  • Done! Hope it helps. – Paloma Sep 2 '20 at 18:26

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