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This sentence, found in a short story:

暗闇に紛れて慎重に行動しているとはいえ、やはり逮捕されるのは心配だった

made me wonder about the differences between 「とはいえ」 and 「にもかかわらず」: both are translated, in grammars, as "despite, although", so I was wondering what would be different in writing:

暗闇に紛れて慎重に行動しているにもかかわらず、やはり逮捕されるのは心配だった

I found this answer, and I was wondering if 「にもかかわらず」 points to something that actually happened, while 「とはいえ」 doesn't, but I was unable to find anything to confirm or deny this; also, I found that the former is linked to negative outcomes, and I'm not sure if the latter has such implications. I found this about 「とはいえ」, which is useful for that specific form, but not so much for how it differs from others.

I was also wondering about 「ものの」:

暗闇に紛れて慎重に行動しているものの、やはり逮捕されるのは心配だった

but I didn't really find anything; would it be very different as meaning, if it's right at all?

I have this example sentence:

日本語の勉強を三年したものの、新聞を読めない

which gives a negative outcome despite a precedent event; this seems to fit in the "Although [fact], [something negative]", so I was wondering if:

日本語の勉強を三年したにもかかわらず、新聞を読めない

would be acceptable.

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Although I(Native Japanese) don't feel discomfort for above all usage, I find a explanation in grammar for them.

GroupA :Reverse Connection

「~ながら(も)」「~にもかかわらず」「~ものの」「~にかかわらず」indicates a connection where the preamble and the postamble are in an opposite relationship, or where the expected result from the preamble does not appear in the postamble.

GroupB: Partially Restate

「~といっても」「~とはいえ」「~からといって」are expressions in which the speaker restates parts of the previous sentence.

About each words;

 The word "~にもかかわらず" expresses a situation that differs from the prediction from the previous sentence in the second sentence. There is no blame or criticism involved. Usually it is simply an objective way of indicating an adversarial relationship, but sometimes the speaker's feelings can be included with the focus particle "~も" .

The word "~ものの" is used to refer to a matter or situation that is contrary to or incompatible with the statement made in the previous sentence, while at the same time acknowledging it. In such cases, the second sentence is often used to express remorse or regret for what was said in the first sentence while acknowledging it.

The word "とはいえ" is a partial restatement of the matter mentioned in the preamble, adding in the post-sentence, "That's true, but it's not actually enough." Often, expressions with negative connotations come in the second sentence, including "~ない".

If you can read, this Japanese page has more information. https://www.jpf.go.jp/j/project/japanese/teach/tsushin/grammar/201703.html

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  • Thanks; if someone were to mix those, like using 「~にもかかわらず」 in place of 「~とはいえ」, would it be comprehensible, although maybe unnatural? – Mauro Aug 26 at 8:33
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    Sorry for being rate reply. Yes, it is comprehensive but feeling unnatural just a little bit. – Keisuke Sep 13 at 8:47

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