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I am trying to figure out the difference between those three sentences.

はじめにコンピューターを使った。

~ Initially, I used a computer.

はじめはコンピューターを使った。

~ In the beginning I used a computer. (e.g. but now I use something else)

はじめてコンピューターを使った。

~ First time I used a computer.

Is there a clear difference in meaning between the first and the second sentence here?

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はじめにコンピューターを使った。

Your translations seem correct to me, except I'd translate it "I used a computer first." for more clearness.

To use or not to use は is a deep question, partially because it is seldom reflected in form in European languages. Anyway the usage of は is usually not relevant to the sentence that contains itself, but other sentences around it. In this case, when you just want to say it as a part of "Firstly..., secondly..., finally..." you don't use it, but you should when "At first..., but / on the other hand...".

What can be surely said is that if you start with はじめは, it implies that it becomes no more in some point.

はじめに言葉があった。 In the beginning was the word.

doesn't mean the word disappeared when the God did something, but

はじめは言葉があった。

does.

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