Could the word いかに always be replaced by どんなに/いくら/どれだけ/どれほど/なんと in structures like

  1. いかに~か
  2. いかに~ても/でも
  3. いかに~とも
  4. いかに~ことか

Basically, what I would like to know is if いかに and どんなに/いくら/どれだけ/どれほど/なんと are considered synonyms or there is any difference.

Thank you so much in advance for your help!

1 Answer 1

    • いかに [adj.] か "How [adj.] (it) is!" (exclamatory)
      = どんなに/どれだけ/どれほど/なんと
    • いかに [V] か "how to V"
      = どう/どのように/どうやって
    • いかに [adj.] ても/でも "no matter how [adj.]"
      = どんなに/いくら/どれだけ/どれほど/どれくらい
    • いかに [V] ても "no matter how [V]"
      = どんなに/いくら/どれだけ/どれほど/どれくらい (how much)
      = どう/どのように/どうやって (in what manner)
  1. = #2 except verbs' conjugation (also often become volitional form "no matter how (it) would/should [V]")
    • いかに [adj./V] ことか "How [adj./V-ing] (it) is!" (explicitly exclamatory)
      = どんなに/どれだけ/どれほど/なんと
      (only such verbs that is semantically stative could be used)

Basically いか is an older word that has double face of "how much" and "what manner/type". To make things more complex, it is often involved in idiomatic or largely fixed expressions, which you have asked. There are only limited forms how いか is employed today:

  • いかに: (degree) どんなに/いくら etc.; (manner) どう/どのように etc.
  • いかなる: どんな/どのような "what kind of"
  • いかが: どう "how about; what about; what like"
  • いかん (almost a particle; better see the link)
  • いかんせん "unfortunately"
  • Thank you so much for your answer! とても助かりました! :)
    – Rick
    Aug 13, 2020 at 15:54

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