Is the 出し -which I believe to be 出す- in the following text a relative clause, as the 行動 is a noun?




1 Answer 1


No. 出し is a 連用形, which means it never modifies a noun as a relative clause. 連用形 literally roughly means "continue-verb-form". That 出し modifies nothing. Just because a verb comes before a noun doesn't mean it's a relative clause.

Compare the following two sentences.

  1. グラウンドを走り先生を呼んだ。
    I ran across the ground and called my teacher.

  2. グラウンドを走る先生を呼んだ。
    I called my teacher who was running across the ground.

走り is a 連用形, so it does not form a relative clause. This 走り is interchangeable with 走って. On the other hand, 走る is a 連体形 (≒dictionary form), so it forms a relative clause that modifies 先生. Please review the basic grammar of relative clauses.

Perhaps you need some exercise. Only two of the following six sentences contain a relative clause. Can you tell which?

  1. 彼はイチゴを食べ鳥を捕まえた。
  2. 彼はイチゴを食べて鳥を捕まえた。
  3. 彼はイチゴを食べる鳥を捕まえた。
  4. 彼女は山に登るシカを見た。
  5. 彼女は山に登りシカを見た。
  6. 彼女は山に登ってシカを見た。
  • 1
    The Third and Fourth sentences form a relative clause, I think, as the verb is before the noun and in its dictionary form...
    – Toyu_Frey
    Commented Aug 6, 2020 at 0:00
  • @Toyu_Frey That's correct. And that's also why 出し in your original question has nothing to do with relative clauses.
    – naruto
    Commented Aug 6, 2020 at 2:40
  • If it isn't a relative clause then what is it?
    – Toyu_Frey
    Commented Aug 17, 2020 at 11:17
  • @Toyu_Frey Two independent clauses that are not directly related to each other, thus forming a compound sentence. A relative clause is a type of dependent (subordinate) clause.
    – naruto
    Commented Aug 17, 2020 at 13:04
  • So then I would translate 声に出し行動を始めた as 声に出し [connecting article, such as "and", "but" etc] 行動を始めた?
    – Toyu_Frey
    Commented Aug 24, 2020 at 18:22

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