This sentence is found in the author's introduction to a Japanese listening study book.


My translation: "To help raise the conversational skills of these students, this intermediate~advanced edition is the result of correcting and improving more than 1000 students' _________ over more than 5 years in classrooms."

Is もの supposed to be referring to the classroom teaching materials? The homework? I'm not clear what it's referring to or how it became the origin of this book.

1 Answer 1


First, please check which is the relative clause that modifies the もの in question. The comma after わたり is part of the relative clause that modifies もの.


This Intermediate–Advanced Edition is a modified and improved version of もの (←which has been used for more than 5 years by more than 1000 learners to help raise the conversational skills of such learners).

So this もの refers to some learning material (教材) that has been used by the authors' institutes for a long time. It may or may not be previously published.

  • Thank you! What a long relative clause, but it makes sense.
    – Hikonyan
    Jul 20, 2020 at 2:29

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .