Maybe I haven't heard enough spoken Japanese to know how fluent speakers do it, but I always get confused with how to translate the way I emphasize words in English into Japanese.
The boy kicked the ball
Take this sentence for example. If I write any of those words in all caps or say any of them with a lot of emphasis then it changes the meaning of the sentence.
THE boy kicked the ball- as opposed to A boy
The BOY kicked the ball- as opposed to the girl, man, dog, etc.
The boy KICKED the ball- as opposed to punching, throwing, etc.
But then trying to translate this to Japanese I get stuck, because I don't feel like I've heard how Japanese speakers would say things with emphasis like this.
I think I get how to use は and こそ to emphasize things.
I think 少年｛しょうねん｝はボールを蹴｛け｝った。in the right context means "The BOY kicked the ball. But maybe someone else didn't or did something else"
And I think これこそがほしい。means "THIS is what I want"
But as for other cases or just having a general way to emphasize things, I'm not sure. It seems like it's a case-by-case thing in Japanese that depends on what you're trying to emphasize, while in English I just say the word louder and that accomplishes it.
My specific questions would be:
What ways are there to put emphasis on words in Japanese? I'm not looking for a detailed breakdown of how は or こそ or anything else works, just some starting points to go off of.
How does just saying certain words louder sound in Japanese? Do people really do that...? Like instead of saying
I said ショウネンはボールを蹴｛け｝った。putting emphasis on 少年
Or 少年はボールをケッた。putting emphasis on 蹴る
Would it accomplish the same nuances as saying "The BOY kicked the ball" and "The boy KICKED the ball"?
Maybe I'm overcomplicating this but any help is appreciated!