I encountered this line in the article on the の particle on imabi.net:
の can also follow other case particles--never が nor に. It can also be after some adverbs. When this happens, it is best to treat the adverb as a nominal phrase.
神への道 Road to God/the gods
母からの手紙 A letter from my mother
しばらくの間 For a while
First, does this mean that をの is valid? I don't think I've ever seen it. But I'd imagine that 私をのボール would mean "the ball that hit me" (or maybe some other verb, depending on context).
Why can only some particles precede the の particle? I can see how がの would be difficult to interpret, but 私にの手紙 (letter to me) seems like a perfectly reasonable construction. Is there any justification/pattern for which particles can precede の?