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日本の国政は議院内閣制であり、内閣は衆議院に信任されていれば存立し、国民の支持・不支持は直接的な制度としては問われず、4年以内に行われる衆議院議員総選挙や衆議院議員補欠選挙を通じて間接的に反映されるだけである(地方政治ではリコール制度がある)。

the political body of japan is that of a parliamentary system of government and it is appointed by the house of representatives and is influenced indirectly by the public and special election of the house of representatives every 4 years regardless of the support of the citizen at least not directly considering the capacity of the system

i want to ask about としては問われず i do understand the general meaning but i would appreciate a more elaborate explaining of this grammatical structure

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It appears to me that you have ignored the overall structure of this long sentence. There are three different subjects in this sentence, and the third one has two predicates. The subject changes when は appears (except the は after 直接的な制度として, which is contrastive).

日本の国政は:

  • 議院内閣制である。

内閣は:

  • 衆議院に信任されていれば存立する。

国民の支持・不支持は:

  • 直接的な制度としては問われない。
  • 4年以内に行われる衆議院議員総選挙や衆議院議員補欠選挙を通じて間接的に反映されるだけである。

As shown above, the subject of 問われず is 国民の支持・不支持. 国民の支持を問う means "to seek/confirm public support (level)" by a referendum, etc.

Japan's national government has a parliamentary cabinet system. The cabinet can exist just by having the confidence of the House of Representatives. People's trust or distrust (in the cabinet) is not questioned, at least through a direct system; it is only indirectly reflected through a general election or a by-election of the members of the House of Representatives, which will be held in 4 years at the latest.

This means that the Japanese system does not have an election to directly choose the prime minister or his/her cabinet members, nor does it have a means to directly recall them. See: Prime Minister of Japan#Appointment

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  • what does "直接的な制度として" refers to here? and does "制度" refers to 直接民主制 ? – light of gold Jul 1 at 15:22
  • @lightofgold It refers to some system for ordinary people to directly choose (or recall) the cabinet members (esp. the prime minister). In other words, Japan does not have something like the US presidential election, where people directly choose the name of a president candidate. The Japanese system is similar to that of the UK; people directly choose only the members of the legislative assembly, and the prime minister is chosen only indirectly. The whole sentence is about how the Japanese cabinet is formed, and it has nothing to do with 直接民主制 which is about how laws are formed. – naruto Jul 1 at 21:24
  • but i am baffled by the usage of として here since 直接的な制度として does not modify 国民の支持・不支持 considering that として means "as" and if it does then can として be used to mean through – light of gold Jul 2 at 0:47
  • @lightofgold 直接的な制度として is an adverbial phrase that modifies 問う... One can do 国民に支持を問う with an unofficial means (like an online poll), but here the author is talking about the direct and official means to vote on a prime minister or candidates. – naruto Jul 3 at 8:15
  • thanks for replaying , my question was about how "として " is used here in the sense of "through" instead of "as" – light of gold Jul 4 at 2:39

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