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I've come across several sentences that have a lone subject or object and then the verb without a particle to be heard of. One example is テーブルですか so my question is, do I only need to use a particle when the subject or object is not clear?

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    Rurik's answer already mentions this, but it's perhaps worth emphasizing that no particle is possible in your sentence, as written. A better example might be お金あります, where a likely が is being omitted. Jun 30 '20 at 5:02
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In spoken Japanese, subject, object, and topic particles are dropped if context makes the role of each noun clear.

僕テーブル買った is fairly certain to be understood as "I bought a table" without the particles.

In your sentence, even with a subject, no particle would appear between テーブル and です.

テーブルです。

これテーブルです。

これはテーブルです。

could all be interpreted as "This is a table."

If you are describing a quality of something with an "X desu" phrase, no particle goes in between X and desu.

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    I would like to add that not only when spoken, you can also often drop particles in written casual Japanese as well. I usually see this in text messages, but similar rules apply to what you wrote, there are times where particles should be added for clarity.
    – ajgudmun
    Jun 30 '20 at 5:32

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