While reading a travel blog I stumbled upon this paragraph:


In my understanding, 寒くて is a て-form of 寒い, 落ち着いて is a て-form of 落ち着く, and 歩いて is a て-form of 歩く. However, I've never seen adjectives connected to verbs through the て-form, or verbs in て-form stuck one after another like that.

What is the grammar behind this and how to translate it?

Source of the sentence: https://www.asahi.com/and_travel/20200608/254241/ (see the 巨大なレーニンの頭像が part).

1 Answer 1


In this case, "て" in "寒くて" plays a role of "so". Here is an awesome article. Refer to the part 〜くて FOR "SO".

It's very cold so I can't speak clearly.

Next, "て" in "落ち着いて" works like adverbs. Also awesome article. Refer to the part て FORM FOR LINKING ACTIONS.

walk relaxedly

The last "て" in "歩いて" works similarly by connecting "いられない"(can't bear). Or maybe it's negation of "歩いている" which is basic usage of て-form. Thus it resolves the meaning like:

It's very cold so I can't put up with walking relaxedly.
It's very cold so I can't keep walking relaxedly.

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