What would be a natural sounding way to say something like return to [verb] i.e. "Return to listening to music" Would it be something like 「音楽を聴くことに戻る」 or 「音楽を聴きに戻る」or anything else like simple て-form?
You said you are asking about "just generally going back", but it's difficult to answer this without a concrete situation.
音楽を聴きに戻る only means "to return (to the previous location) in order to listen to music". As you probably know, this
verb + に + motion-verb construction refers to a spatial movement with a purpose. If you have been doing something else and need to walk at least for a few seconds to go back to the place where you were listening to the music, then this should be natural.
On the other hand, 音楽を聴くことに戻る (or simply 音楽に戻る/曲に戻る) usually simply means "to start listening to music again", and it does not involve a spatial movement. If you have been doing something else while you are sitting, this should be the correct choice.
聴く is a very active verb, that it should be sufficient to use また to imply you are returning to what you were doing beforehand, and adding 始め reinforces it.
I'm going to start listening to music again
This may not work for passive verbs especially where you aren't the one taking action. If use of 聴く in that sentence isn't important, you could always use 再開 which would mean resuming, assuming it was clear that's what you were doing right before.
I resumed the music