Does "彼女作れ" just mean "get a girlfriend?
How about sentences like "get a husband" or "get a partner". Would I still use 作る there?
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Yes, the verb 作る is used in Japanese to express the idea of 'getting' a girlfriend/boyfriend. Think of it as being similar to the English phrase "to make friends" with someone, but instead, it's "make a girlfriend/boyfriend". So your translation "get a girlfriend" is reasonable. By the way, you can also use it for making friends: 友達を作る.
For "get a husband/wife", 作る is not generally used. The most common way to express that is probably to simply to refer to marriage, i.e. 結婚する or something along those lines.