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While working through the Tobira textbook, I came to a grammar point Chapter 1 - #5. This stated verb stems and adverbial い-adj form could be used to combine sentences as in:

  1. 昨日は友達とレストランで晩ご飯を食べ、その後、映画を見に行った。

  2. この地方は冬は雪が多く、夏はとても暑い。

It doesn't give English translations but I take these sentences to mean:

  1. Yesterday I ate dinner with my friend at a restaurant, and after that we went to go watch a movie.

  2. In this region, the winters have a lot of snow and the summers are very hot.

My question is whether this grammar structure can only be used with non-conjugated phrases. This mostly concerns negative vs. affirmative sense, since the 1st example shows that the first phrase will have the same past/non-past sense as the following phrase.

For example, (following the pattern of い-adj --> て-form w/out て) do these make sense/sound idiomatic:

  1. 姉は高くなく、まだ早くジョギングができます。

My sister is not tall, and still she can jog quickly

  1. 今日お昼ご飯を食べなく、4時よりおなかがペコペコになってしまいました。

Today I did not eat lunch, and from 4 o-clock on I became hungry

If these do not make sense, is there a similar grammar structure to use? Or would just a word with the opposite sense be used instead?

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You're right. That's how you conjugate ない forms, and I find nothing wrong with the following examples that you provided:

  1. 姉は高くなく、まだ早くジョギングができます。

My sister is not tall, and still she can jog quickly

  1. 今日お昼ご飯を食べなく、4時よりおなかがペコペコになってしまいました。

Today I did not eat lunch, and from 4 o-clock on I became hungry

That being said, please do note that this form is more common in written Japanese than in spoken Japanese. As far as I know, patterns like い-adj --> て-form are more common in spoken Japanese.

To include Mindful's correction, the last option is better written as

  1. 今日お昼ご飯を食べないで、4時よりおなかがペコペコになってしまいました。
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  • My question wasn't so much "is my conjugation correct" but, does that conjugation work in the grammar structure, could you add info on that matter?
    – katatahito
    May 8, 2020 at 0:15
  • Done with the edits :)
    – rebuuilt
    May 8, 2020 at 0:23
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    Unfortunately there is something wrong with last example, purely because the negative for verbs in this case behaves unusually. See here and also here.
    – Mindful
    May 8, 2020 at 3:23
  • @Mindful Thank you for your comment. Are you referring to the fact that it should not be 今日お昼ご飯を食べなくて4時より〜 but 今日お昼ご飯を食べないで4時より〜?
    – rebuuilt
    May 8, 2020 at 8:22
  • Yes, that's correct. If you wanted to match the stiff and formal feeling of dropping て like in 高くなく then ず is also an option, but the simplest/most basic option for negation here is ないで.
    – Mindful
    May 8, 2020 at 16:19

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