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Are there any differences between 手を差し伸べる, 手伝う and 助ける? They all mean "I will help you". In which situations would I use each of them?

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Very much different in their nuances.

手を差し伸べる -- start helping someone who is desperate.
例) マリアは祈るだけでなく難民の生活に手を差し伸べた

手伝う -- general 'help'
例) マリアは皿洗いを手伝った

助ける -- save, rescue and help something.
例) 消防士は瀕死のマリアを助けた

Use them carefully with looking up you dictionary. Some Japanese dictionaries provide you some collocations.
See also 支える

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  • general 'help' はちょっと曖昧すぎるので "assist/support" とかにした方がいいかも… – naruto May 8 '20 at 7:25
  • 手を差し伸べるって必死の状況でしか使わんつわけ? – Newbie May 8 '20 at 21:39
  • @Newbie, この中では、一番被救助者が一人ではどうにもならない状況にあります weblio.jp/content/… – user34216 May 8 '20 at 22:16
  • @naruto, don't worry my english sucks. – user34216 May 8 '20 at 22:17

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