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Character A is talking about character B

「…こいつは昔のオレに似ていた。全てを手に入れたつもりで、何でも成せると盲信しようとする。だからこそ己の失敗に怯え、己に失敗は無いのだと自分に嘘をつく。結果、それをごまかす方法として、他人の力を信用しなくなったのがオレだ。」

I understand that 「全てを手に入れたつもりで、何でも成せると盲信しようとする。だからこそ己の失敗に怯え、己に失敗は無いのだと自分に嘘をつく」is about the speaking character himself, by the meaning. But speaking of grammar only, are these two sentences impersonal? I mean, if I want to translate it word by word (into my native language), would it be "I did that and that..." or should it be "To do that and that..."?

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If your language has a way to form impersonal sentences, that is it. Japanese grammar does not require marking of subject, thus you can make a sentence that describes a specific event without subject. In the case, what should stand as subject in other languages is undefined until further disambiguated by particles, honorifics, context, or explicit addition.

English does not allow it, so the closest translation would be "One did..." or "You did...".

In your example, you can reasonably imagine that all of those actions are the speaker's, but that is not specified by the grammar. They are just anonymous actions, with the last sentence that tells one of who has done them is オレ.

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