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Please correct me, is it right that restaurant waiters ask 以上で? to mean "is that all" after you order?

If so, I can see two opposite logics behind it:

First logic: The basic meaning of 以上is "beyond, further", as in "something beyond?" or "nothing further to say?", so that's the implied question. Or else, 以上 can be translated as "more than" as in "anything more than that?". The waiter asking 以上で?is asking you what else you want something "on top of" what you already asked for (以上で何?) .

Second logic: Maybe possible extra orders aren't thought of as added "on top" of the previous ones (as we do when we pile things up), especially as Japanese is written top down (縦書き), which makes a list of desires particularly likely to be perceived as extending downwards. if so , 以上で is perceived as meaning "the abovementioned" and the omitted phrase isn't "what" but rather "is enough" as in 以上の注文は全部ですか?

There probably is some conclusive proof that one of these two logics is wrong.

On a practical note, how should I phrase my answer to the waiter's question, both when I have nothing to add and when I would like to ask for something else?

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Yes, both a customer and a waiter use 以上で very often. It means "that's it" or "that's all". When a waiter asked "以上で?" you can just say 以上で, 以上です or simply はい. If you want to order more, you can say something like あとコーヒーを or それからケーキを. If you want time, you can use "あと…" ("And...").

以上 by itself means "above here/this", and by extension it also means "the above-mentioned things". For example we say both 以上のことより and 以上より interchangeably ("from what I said", "putting them together"). And by further extension, 以上 on its own also means "the above-mentioned things are all", hence "that's it". So your "second logic" is closer.

This type of 以上(です) is also used at the end of an e-mail, a presentation, an instruction, and so on.

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