pretty basic question, but I was curious if an adverb needs copula (like a noun, or na-adjective) or not (like an i-adjective).

For example:

  1. たいへんだそう or たいへんそう
  2. ぴったり(+だ?)
  3. 私はズバズバ(+だ?)<- can i even use a sentence like this?

In casual/colloquial speech, you can often (but not always) drop the copula だ・です after adverbs such as くたくた、ふらふら、こりごり、がらがら (同じ音を繰り返すもの), がっかり、しっとり、さっぱり (「〇っ〇り」「〇ん〇り」の形のもの) -- those that generally can function as a する-verb or an onomatopoeia.


このぬいぐるみはふわふわだ。 → このぬいぐるみ、ふわふわ。
おなかがぺこぺこです。 → おなかぺこぺこ。
このスカートはぴったりだ。 → このスカート、ぴったり。
もううんざりです。 → もううんざり。

たいへんだそう or たいへんそう

Actually, no adverb is used in these examples. The そう's used here are an auxiliary (dictionary form: そうだ), not an adverb. たいへん's used here are both a na-adjective, not an adverb.

But if you're asking whether they can be used at the end of a sentence with no copula attached...

(様態) たいへんそうです。 → たいへんそう。

It's common to use it that way in casual/colloquial speech.


(伝聞) たいへんだそうです。 → たいへんだそう。

It's also okay, though you might see 「~だそう。」 more in the written form (eg ブログやエッセイなど). (In casual/colloquial speech, we often say 「たいへんらしい。」「たいへんみたい。」 or 「たいへんなんだって。」 etc.)


I think especially in colloquial speech, you can omit copulas, but in rather formal speech, copulas such as です、ます would be requited. By the way, I don't understand what this


sentence mean. Regarding your 2 sentences, which are




are both quite different, because whereas たいへんそうだ denotes the subjective view of the other's behavior, like "It looks like A is quite dreadful in XXXX", on the other hand, たいへんだそう denotes like "I heard A is in trouble", meaning a hearsay or a report from someone. Since these 2 sentences are quite different, I would like to refrain from speaking about copulas.

  • 1
    no, i did mean たいへんだそう (I hear it's difficult) as in a hearsay report, like 静かだそう ( I hear it's quiet), instead of たいへんそうです (It looks difficult). 私はズバズバ's intent was "I am outspoken" , to see if an adverb needs copula at the end (like a noun and na-adjective needs to have to be grammatically correct), or if it functions like an i-adjective (where copula is only needed to make it formal). – loser Mar 1 '20 at 22:19
  • Then the whole issue becomes quite different. – Kentaro Mar 1 '20 at 22:23

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