How can I say "I'm tired of waiting", "I'm tired/bored of staying home all day"?
Can I use て form + 疲れる? What is the difference among 疲れる、飽きる and うんざりする?
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Yes, but it has a nuance like "I am tired because I am verb+ing". I think のに appropriates for your sentence such as 一日中家にいるのに疲れる.
When I read dictionaries, I noticed that these words "tired", "bored", "weary", "fatigued" are used in order to explain 疲れる、飽きる、うんざりする, so it may be difficult to explain the difference among them by using these English words.
Japanese dictionaries say that 疲れる means "体力や気力を消耗してその働きが衰える", 飽きる means "多すぎたり、同じことが長く続いたりして、いやになる", うんざりする means "物事に飽きて、つくづくいやになるさま". I dare to explain them in English, 疲れる means "to consume energy", 飽きる means "to lose interest", うんざりする means "to be fed up with".
The best choice here would probably be 飽きる.
飽きる expresses that you have become bored with something. It is no longer interesting, you've had enough of it.
e.g. 僕はテレビを見るのに飽きたよ I'm tired of watching television.
うんざりする is an onomatopoeia. It express more emotion than 飽きる. I feel that うんざりis good when you are fed up with something which is negative to start with, such as bad manners.
e.g. 僕は彼の下品な冗談にはうんざりする I'm fed up with his vulgar jokes.
疲れる is different from the above two words because it is concerned with expressing physical exhaustion rather than boredom or contempt.
e.g. 僕は歩くのに疲れたよ I'm tired from walking.
How can I say "I'm tired of waiting"
There is actually a special verb for this, machikutabireru. 待ちくたびれる.
, "I'm tired/bored of staying home all day"?
The most common thing I hear is something like "のがいやになった". 一日中家にいるのがいやになった。 (ichinichijuu ie ni iru no ga iya ni natta.) What one thinks of as most common may depend on the speakers one most often hears, of course.
Can I use て form + 疲れる?
I think you can say 待って疲れた but つかれる tends to mean physical or mental tiredness rather than exasperation or impatience.
In Japanese 疲れる will only refer to the condition of being exhausted;
So, if you say ずっと家にいて疲れた。(I'm tired/bored of staying home all day), it will mean that you are exhausted, usually either physically or mentally as a result of staying (ずっといて).
If you just want to express your unwillingness to stay or dis-satisfaction of staying, we'd rather say, ずっと家にいて飽きた。