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I know that 就く{つく}means “to be hired”. But does it have a separate meaning in sports jargon (soccer, baseball...)

I’m referring to the following sentence:

全員、守備に就くため走った。

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know that 就{つ}くmeans “to be hired”.

While that is not incorrect, I would rather suggest that you remember the meaning as "to assume a position". Why? Because while 「就く」 is in the active-voice form, "to be hired" is in the passive voice.

The 「就く」 in the sentence:

「全員{ぜんいん}、守備{しゅび}に就{つ}くため走{はし}った。」

is not all that different in that it means:

"Everyone ran to assume a defensive position."

Sports or business, you are assuming/taking a certain position. That is what 「~~に就く」 means.

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