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と、士道がそんなことを思っていると、令音がおもむろに手を背中にやってパチン、という音をさせたのち、手を服の中に入れて何やらもぞもぞと蠢き、首元からブラジャーを抜き取った。

Hi. Could you please explain the difference between 音をさせる and 音がする and 音を出す/立てる? All of them seem to mean the same. Thank you.

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する in 音がする is intransitive, and it refers to some "environmental" sound you hear. This kind of する is explained in this question. The other three are transitive. Here the subject of the sentence is 令音, and he is the one who made this sound, so 音がする cannot be used.

音をさせる, 音を立てる and 音を出す are very similar, but 音をさせる and 音を立てる are usually used with unintentional (and often undesirable) kind of noise made when you are doing something (e.g., 大きな音を立ててドアを開く). 音を出す is usually used when the sound itself is the main purpose (e.g. トランペットの音を出す練習をする).

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