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そこでようやく士道が起きていることに気づいたのだろう。士道のお腹の上に足をのっけていた妹ーー琴里が、中学校の制服を翻しながらこちらに顔を向ける。

Hi, dear teachers. Could you please help me with some questions about the clause 琴里が、中学校の制服を翻しながらこちらに顔を向ける。? What do you think is the difference between 中学校の制服を翻しながら and 中学校の制服が翻りながら in this context?

I think 中学校の制服 can be work as a body part and even if the action 翻す is a non-volitional action in this context, we should use を翻す here because the clause implies that the reason why the uniform fluttered is that 琴里 turned her head (こちらに顔を向ける). So 制服が翻る would be unnatural here. Am I on the right track? If not, could you share your opinions? Thank you.

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Two actions combined with ながら must have the same subject.

琴里が、中学校の制服を翻しながらこちらに顔を向ける。

can be split to:

main clause: 琴里が、こちらに顔を向ける
sub clause: 琴里が、中学の制服を翻す

As you know, [翻]{ひるがえ}す is transitive, and [翻]{ひるがえ}る is intransitive.

琴里が、中学校の制服が翻りながらこちらに顔を向ける, where the subject of the main clause is 琴里 and that of the sub-clause is 中学の制服, would be grammatically incorrect.

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chino alpha,

Of course, if you use 中学校の制服が翻りながら in stead, people can understand the meaning but they will feel something is odd.

Your idea will be one of the reason why 翻しながら is better in this context. Another reason is people prefer to use people as the subject rather than objects in Japanese.

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