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Every time I walk by a barbershop (not a 美容院), I think of the words 散髪屋 and 床屋. Which word is correct, or sounds better, more interesting, for a non-native speaker to use in a conversation?

And, after either, is it possible to add "さん"? Such as 散髪屋さん and 床屋さん?

By adding, "さん" what nuance does it add?

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It is not that one of the two is any more correct than the other; Both are "correct". Certainly, neither one sounds better or more interesting.

「散髪屋{さんぱつや}」, however, is mainly used in Kansai as explained in this dictionary of Osaka dialect.

Around Tokyo (or eastern half of the country in general), it would be safe to say 「床屋{とこや}」 is far more common.

In either case, the more formal term is 「理容店{りようてん}」 or 「理髪店{りはつてん}」, but those are not too often used in our informal, everyday conversations as they sound fairly technical.

Regarding attaching a 「さん」, it adds an amount of politeness and a sense of affinity. Quite a few native speakers will use it when talking about a barber's shop with others. 「床屋/散髪屋」 with or without a 「さん」 can refer to either the shop or the owner.

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