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I am currently reading chapter 118 of the webcomic One-Punch Man, and came across this sentence:

検定の日を狙っていた奴がダメ押しでもう一人現れた.

I run across a lot of sentences with the particle で, and I never know when it's supposed to be used as "and" when it's used together with a noun, or "because". I don't know if this sentence is "(the person) made doubly sure, AND..." or if it is "BECAUSE (the person) made doubly sure, ...." or maybe it means something completely different.

Is there a rule or hint I can use to rule out one or the other?

Edit:

So I asked A Japanese lady I tutor in English, and she said that this is a really weird grammar structure that mostly youth use, and seems to be kinda limited to be used only in Manga (unsure how genuine this is), but the meaning of the で particle here is connected to ダメ押し, meaning that the person who came/aimed at this test came here by being absolutely /doubly sure in their heart that they would win/pass, and it connects to もう一人現れた by meaning that another person who was absolutely/doubly sure they would win/pass in their heart also arrived.

Now I probably paraphrased this horribly, but at least now I know that it was neither of the ways of using the particles that I previously thought, and I can use that information to research it more on my own.

  • I checked the manga, it's もう一人現れた without that が (otherwise ungrammatical in this context). – broccoli facemask - cloth Jan 6 at 6:13
  • @broccoliforest thank you, sorry for making a mistake. – loser Jan 6 at 9:31
  • I'm not completely sure what this edit is trying to say. Are you saying that you have the answer now, or are you not completely confident in what she told you? – ajsmart Jan 7 at 19:31
  • @ajsmart I understand the sentence now. I was unable to articulate her explanation of the で particle's function in my edit. I've been looking in textbooks. but I can't find any function that explains her understanding of the particle here. some example sentences she wrote me: トムは必死「で」帰国の準備をしています。- 必死「で」-> 必死「に」でもどちらでも同じ意味になります。 私はトムが帰ってしまうので暗い気持ち「で」過ごしています。-> 暗い気持ち「に」とは、言いません。暗い気持ち「で」だけです。 Consider it answered. – loser Jan 9 at 1:56
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    Hi, regarding the edit, if you think it answers your own question, then consider posting it as a proper answer instead so that the question can be really considered answered. Considering the Q&A nature of this site, answers don't go in the question, and self-answering is not only allowed, but even encouraged! – Andrew T. Jan 13 at 12:08
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I understand the sentence now. I was unable to articulate her explanation of the で particle's function in my edit. I've been looking in textbooks. but I can't find any function that explains her understanding of the particle here. some example sentences she wrote me:

  1. トムは必死「で」帰国の準備をしています。- 必死「で」-> 必死「に」でもどちらでも同じ意味になります。
  2. 私はトムが帰ってしまうので暗い気持ち「で」過ごしています。-> 暗い気持ち「に」とは、言いません。暗い気持ち「で」だけです。

Consider it answered.

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I think this time it is used as "and" since the second part is "another person appears"

I don't really know if there's a rule or not, but personally for me, if I am unsure then I just remove the で and see if the part before and the part after it make complete sentences that make sense.

Not sure if this helps.

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