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I was wondering for this line:

緊張してるの?準備は丸一日しただろう。

Let's say A says this line to B. Does it sound alright id I say:

"You prepared the whole day, didn't you?." (so, why are you nervous?). If I rearrange the sentence as 丸一日準備をしただろう is it the same meaning?

Is 丸一日した an adverb here? Kinda feel that maybe the に particle was left out, is it the case? (the character A who speaks has a colloquial way of talking, with many informal, shortened phrases, so I'm thinking that leaving out some words is appropriate for him).

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丸一日した is not an adverb (it clearly includes した which is a verb), but 丸一日 is adverbial. Nothing is omitted after 丸一日 because it works as an adverb on its own. Remember that number + counter works as an adverb that describes an amount in Japanese:

  • リンゴを2個買います。
  • 鉛筆を1本ください。

The same goes for a time length:

  • 日本に3日滞在しました。
  • 15年間東京に住んでいます。
  • 10分待ってください。

丸一日 is in the same vein. 丸一日準備(は/を/φ)しただろう means the same thing. に is used to describe when something happens (e.g., 1998年に = in 1998; 日曜日に = on Sunday), but it never marks a time length.

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