2

夕立 means (sudden) evening shower (rain)​.

夕 is for evening, but 立 means to stand, doesn't it?

What's the connection between a sudden evening shower and standing?

4

The verb 「立{た}つ」 has so many meanings/usages, not just "to stand".

Goo 辞書 lists 16 of them (while Jisho, people's favorite dictionary, only lists 3). 16 vs. 3. Are you kidding, Jisho?

Definition #6 in Goo says:

6 自然界{しぜんかい}の現象{げんしょう}・作用{さよう}が目立{めだ}って現{あらわ}れる。

㋐雲{くも}・月{つき}などが空高{そらたか}くかかる。「虹{にじ}が―・つ」「霞{かすみ}が―・つ」

㋑風{かぜ}・波{なみ}などが起{お}こる。「涼風{りょうふう}が―・つ」「土用波{どようなみ}が―・つ」

The first line means:

"(Of a natural phenomenon) to appear in a significant manner."

So, we say as in the examples above:

「The rainbow, haze, wind, sea waves, etc. + が + 立つ」

when those occur.

Thus, 「夕立」 literally means "occurrence of the evening (meteorological) phenomenon".

For those of you who did not know, 「夕」 here actually refers to 'late afternoon' rather than 'evening'.

There is Ghibli film named 「風立ちぬ」 and its title has been discussed here:

Meaning of ぬ added to 連用形 / masu-stem, as in 風立ちぬ

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