6

面白い has the meaning of fun or interesting, whereas 興味深い appears to represent a similar state of "interesting".

What are the differences between these two adjectives, and when should 興味深い be employed?

7

The differences are two-fold.

Scope of meanings:

「おもしろい」 (I do not use kanji to write this word.) has two different meanings. "Funny" and "interesting". Which one the word is being used for depends totally on the context/situation.

「興味深{きょうみぶか}い」 only means "interesting", "arousing one's curiosity", etc. It can never mean "funny".

Formality:

「おもしろい」 sounds much less formal and stiff than 「興味深い」.

「興味深い」 is not really an everyday kind of word for many native speakers.  If you want to use it, you might do so in at least a little bit formal settings. It sounds heavier than "interesting". It is kind of closer to "intriguing" in feeling. 

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-2

深い means deep.
興味深い sounds more profound than 面白い.

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