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According to Jisho they both mean "prosperity; flourishing; thriving", but unfortunately it doesn't give any example for 隆盛 and a Google search isn't helpful, I wasn't able to find any discussion about how they differ. I tried Weblio too, but as far as I can understand it I wasn't able to find an entry for 繫盛.

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「繁盛{はんじょう}」 and 「隆盛{りゅうせい}」 "feel" quite differently from each other. The former is a household word even 10-year-old kids know how to use, but the latter is a much 'higher' word.

「繁盛」 is most often used to refer to the success/prosperity of a business. If a burger joint has plenty of customers, we would say 「あのハンバーガー屋{や}さんは繁盛している。」. You would sound extremely weird if you used 「隆盛」 to say that.

「隆盛」 is a fairly formal word generally, if not always, used to refer to the prosperity of a (historical) family, clan, empire, etc. Using the everyday word 「繁盛」 in that type of context would simply be out of the question.

You would say, for instance, something like 「ローマ帝国{ていこく}の隆盛と滅亡{めつぼう}」 ("The prosperity and downfall of the Roman Empire")

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