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While practicing for the upcoming JLPT exam, I came across this question

昨夜は風が強かった〇〇、庭の木の葉が全部落ちている。

A. はずで  B. たびに  C. によって  D. とみえて

For B. たびに, I understand that it should be used for something that happens regularly, so it is unlikely to be this choice because of 昨夜.

For C. によって, though it can imply the cause/reason, I understand that it should be used after a noun, so it is unlikely to be this choice as well.

Now as for D. とみえて, I found a similar example as below making me to decide to go with this choice.

雨が降ったとみえて、道が濡れています。

However, after showing this question to my Japanese friend, she suggested that among all these choices, she would pick A. はずで.

Now I started to get confuse of what should be an appropriate answer here. Is it possible for someone to kindly elaborate on why one should be used here instead of another?

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    after showing this question to my Japanese friend, she suggested that among all these choices, she would pick A. はずで -- !? Are you sure her native language is Japanese? – Chocolate Nov 21 '19 at 3:44
  • @Chocolate Now that you mentioned it, I'm actually not sure since we met online... Apologies if this may cause confusion to anyone – Maru Nov 21 '19 at 3:56
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昨夜{さくや}は風{かぜ}が強{つよ}かった〇〇、庭{にわ}の木の葉{は}が全部[落]{お}ちている。

A. はずで  B. たびに  C. によって  D. とみえて

To me, the correct answer would be D. とみえて. 「~~と見{み}える」 is an expression of conjecture based on a reason or grounds -- "it must ~~", "it must have been ~~", etc.

Conjecture: 昨夜は風が強かった "it was very windy last night"

Grounds: 庭の木の葉が全部落ちている "all the tree leaves have fallen in the yard"

There arises absolutely no unnaturalness if the sentence is formed using 「とみえて」.

B. たびに and C. によって are just impossible precisely for the reasons that you yourself stated.

A. はずで is not nearly as natural-sounding as D. とみえて while I might not necessarily call it 'incorrect'. Why not very natural?

「はず(だ)」 expresses conviction or firm belief and the most common position it takes in a sentence is at the very end. Using it mid-sentence by turning it into its continuative form 「はずで」 is not very common. Thus, if the sentence were:

「庭の木の葉が全部落ちている。昨夜は(相当{そうとう})風が強かったはずだ。」

then, it would be much better.

In addition, IMHO, 「はずで」 would be too strong a word choice compared to 「とみえて」 in this particular sentence. The speaker is not conducting an investigation here. S/he is merely stating his/her conjecture regarding last night's weather that seems to have caused the leaves to fall.

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    there are tons of examples like this in JLPT exam practice books which does not sound natural at all. But dont know if its Japan Government who want such changes in Japanese for new generation. – アニケン_スカイワカー Nov 21 '19 at 2:24
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    @アニケン_スカイワカー What do you mean ? l'électeur just said that the D answer is natural-sounding, so why do you think that this sentence "does not sound natural at all" ? – Thomas Petit Nov 21 '19 at 2:58
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    @アニケン, Naw~ The correct answer is とみえて. wordgrammar.net/… – Chocolate Nov 21 '19 at 3:48
  • Ok. I think I got one. But there are tons of weird and unfit sentences in books which dont sound natural at all. That is what all i have to say here. – アニケン_スカイワカー Nov 21 '19 at 4:05
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    ^ それって選ぶ教材によるような気が・・・ – Chocolate Nov 21 '19 at 4:07

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