Both words mean condition. In what context do we use them? Is one for expressing the condition of living things and the other one for the non-living things?
They are very similar, but I feel the threshold between よい調子 and 悪い調子 is higher than that between よい具合 and 悪い具合.
- 彼は調子が良い: He is at his best
- 彼は調子が悪い: He is not in his best condition, if not ill
- 彼は具合が悪い: He is sick
- 機械の調子が悪い: The machine is working, but something is wrong
- 機械の具合が悪い: The machine may be broken
- 調子はどう?: How's it going? / How are you?
- 具合はどう?: How is your health? / Are you feeling any better?
And there are several set phrases where you can use only one of the two, for example:
- 調子がいいことを言う: to sweet-talk; say nice things
- 調子にのる: to push one's luck
- その日は具合が悪い: I'm busy that day; It's not a good day for me