All these words can be translated in English as "arrogant", but I would like more explanation as to which context each would be used in.
For example, I can't tell the difference between these expressions:
This is my current guess of the differences based on what I read so far:
To act like one is better than others by looking down on them. Used to describe the personality of a person as a whole.
To act superior by ignoring others. Used to describe the behavior and actions of a person. The antonym would be 謙虚
To behave like one is important (not too certain how this is different from the others)
As a user has pointed out, there are more similar words that can be interpreted the same way in English. If anyone can add as to how these words are different, it would be appreciated.
高慢 - From the kanji, I'm guessing this is based more on being too proud of oneself, hence being arrogant
高ぶる - Not too sure about this one