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The phrase Nなく means "without N" and is used to modify verbs, as in:

彼は私を躊躇なく殴った。
He hit me without hesitation.

In sentences like this, is it ungrammatical or unnatural to say Nがなく instead of Nなく?

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In sentences like this, is it ungrammatical or unnatural to say Nがなく instead of Nなく?

Basically, yes. The role of <Noun>なく is explained in the answer linked in Chocolate's comment, but what's important here is that it behaves like an adverb.

Generally if you say <Noun>がなく, you are making a statement and ない is the verb. This なく is functionally equivalent to なくて, in the sense that the conjugation here just allows the sentence to continue.

You have

彼は私を躊躇なく殴った。

He hit me without hesitation.

You could also have

彼は躊躇がなく、私を殴った。

He had no hesitation, and hit me.

which is technically grammatical, though it sounds awkward (as does the equivalent English), and people reading it may just think you wanted to say 躊躇なく.

This

彼は私を躊躇がなく殴った。

is just confusing and likely ungrammatical; I wouldn't know what to make of it.

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